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Curcumin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 19 studies
Covid Analysis, August 8, 2022, DRAFT
https://c19curcumin.com/meta.html
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 40% 19 4,006 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 61% 6 605 Ventilation 77% 3 386 ICU admission 67% 1 120 Hospitalization 25% 8 2,901 Progression 76% 2 101 Recovery 37% 10 662 Viral clearance 35% 5 339 RCTs 41% 15 1,318 RCT mortality 61% 6 605 Peer-reviewed 41% 18 3,760 Prophylaxis 32% 2 2,401 Early 46% 8 771 Late 49% 9 834 Curcumin for COVID-19 c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Favorscurcumin Favorscontrol after exclusions
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and viral clearance. 11 studies from 10 independent teams in 6 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (7 for the most serious outcome).
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 40% [31‑48%] improvement. Results are similar for Randomized Controlled Trials, similar after exclusions, and similar for peer-reviewed studies.
Results are robust — in exclusion sensitivity analysis 15 of 19 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy in pooled analysis.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 40% 19 4,006 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 61% 6 605 Ventilation 77% 3 386 ICU admission 67% 1 120 Hospitalization 25% 8 2,901 Progression 76% 2 101 Recovery 37% 10 662 Viral clearance 35% 5 339 RCTs 41% 15 1,318 RCT mortality 61% 6 605 Peer-reviewed 41% 18 3,760 Prophylaxis 32% 2 2,401 Early 46% 8 771 Late 49% 9 834 Curcumin for COVID-19 c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Favorscurcumin Favorscontrol after exclusions
Studies typically use advanced formulations for greatly improved bioavailability.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 26% of curcumin studies show zero events in the treatment arm. Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, and other treatments may be more effective.
No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Denying the efficacy of treatments increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and endemic risk.
All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix. Other meta analyses for curcumin can be found in [Kow, Vahedian-Azimi], showing significant improvements for mortality, hospitalization, and symptoms.
Highlights
Curcumin reduces risk for COVID-19 with very high confidence for mortality, hospitalization, recovery, and in pooled analysis, high confidence for viral clearance, low confidence for ventilation, and very low confidence for progression. Studies typically use advanced formulations for greatly improved bioavailability.
We show traditional outcome specific analyses and combined evidence from all studies, incorporating treatment delay, a primary confounding factor in COVID-19 studies.
Real-time updates and corrections, transparent analysis with all results in the same format, consistent protocol for 43 treatments.
A
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Dound (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.54-0.82] 6 pt. scale 100 (n) 100 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Saber-Moghaddam 94% 0.06 [0.00-0.93] progression 0/21 8/20 Pawar (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.79] death 2/70 11/70 Ahmadi (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.65] hosp. 0/30 3/30 Sankhe (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.03] death 0/87 4/87 CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.09] ventilation 0/45 1/47 CT​1 Khan (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.37-1.19] no recov. 10/25 15/25 CT​1 Askari (DB RCT) -125% 2.25 [0.30-16.6] no recov. 3/8 1/6 Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 29.6%, p = 0.0092 Early treatment 46% 0.54 [0.34-0.86] 15/386 43/385 46% improvement Valizadeh (DB RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.18-1.40] death 4/20 8/20 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tahmasebi (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.02-1.32] death 1/40 6/40 Hassania.. (DB RCT) -46% 1.46 [0.01-329] SpO2 imp. 20 (n) 20 (n) Asadirad (RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.26-2.12] death 5/27 6/24 Kartika 41% 0.59 [0.35-1.00] hosp. time 139 (n) 107 (n) Hartono (RCT) 53% 0.47 [0.32-0.68] viral+ 14/30 30/30 CT​1 Thomas (DB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.34-0.91] improv. 74 (n) 73 (n) LONG COVID CT​1 Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.71] death 0/60 3/60 CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.95] NEWS2 33 (n) 17 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 49% 0.51 [0.40-0.64] 24/443 53/391 49% improvement Shehab 42% 0.58 [0.14-2.32] severe case 2/32 24/221 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Nimer 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.04] hosp. 29/329 179/1,819 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.039 Prophylaxis 32% 0.68 [0.48-0.98] 31/361 203/2,040 32% improvement All studies 40% 0.60 [0.52-0.69] 70/1,190 299/2,816 40% improvement 19 curcumin COVID-19 studies c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome, see appendix) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Dound (RCT) 33% 6 pt. scale CT​1 Improvement Relative Risk [CI] Saber-Moghaddam 94% progression Pawar (DB RCT) 82% death Ahmadi (DB RCT) 86% hospitalization Sankhe (RCT) 89% death CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 66% ventilation CT​1 Khan (RCT) 33% recovery CT​1 Askari (DB RCT) -125% recovery Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 29.6%, p = 0.0092 Early treatment 46% 46% improvement Valizadeh (DB RCT) 50% death Tahmasebi (DB RCT) 83% death Hassania.. (DB RCT) -46% SpO2 imp. Asadirad (RCT) 26% death Kartika 41% hospitalization Hartono (RCT) 53% viral- CT​1 Thomas (DB RCT) 44% improv. LONG COVID CT​1 Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% death CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 77% NEWS2 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 49% 49% improvement Shehab 42% severe case Nimer 31% hospitalization Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.039 Prophylaxis 32% 32% improvement All studies 40% 40% improvement 19 curcumin COVID-19 studies c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Protocol pre-specified/rotate for details1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis. This plot shows pooled effects, discussion can be found in the heterogeneity section, and results for specific outcomes can be found in the individual outcome analyses. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. For details of effect extraction see the appendix. B. Scatter plot showing the distribution of effects reported in studies. C. History of all reported effects (chronological within treatment stages).
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of curcumin for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for individual outcomes, for peer-reviewed studies, for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), and after exclusions.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Prophylaxis refers to regularly taking medication before becoming sick, in order to prevent or minimize infection. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Mechanisms of Action
3CLpro inhibitorCurcumin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro [Bahun, Guijarro-Real, Rehman].
RdRp inhibitorSARS-CoV-2 RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibition [Singh].
ACE2 inhibitorCurcumin inhibits ACE2 activity. SARS-CoV-2 viral entry requires host cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2 [Jena, Patel].
TMPRSS2 downregulationCurcumin downregulates transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). SARS-CoV-2 viral entry requires host cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2 [Goc].
Cathepsin L inhibitorCurcumin inhibits cathepsin L activity. Cathepsin L plays a key role in viral entry [Goc].
Anti‑inflammatoryCurcumin shows anti-inflammatory effects [Daily, Derosa, Gupta, Marín-Palma, Rattis, Sahebkar].
Inhibition in Vero E6 cells demonstratedIn Vitro research shows curcumin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells [Bormann, Marín-Palma].
Inhibition in Calu-3 cells demonstratedIn Vitro research shows curcumin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells [Bormann].
Table 1. Curcumin mechanisms of action. Submit updates.
Preclinical and Phase I Research
5 In Silico studies support the efficacy of curcumin [Kandeil, Nag, Rampogu, Sekiou, Singh].
7 In Vitro studies support the efficacy of curcumin [Bahun, Bormann, Goc, Goc (B), Guijarro-Real, Kandeil, Leka].
[Panda] present a phase I clinical study investigating a novel formulation of curcumin that may be more effective for COVID-19.
Preclinical research is an important part of the development of treatments, however results may be very different in clinical trials. Preclinical results are not used in this paper.
Results
Figure 3 shows a visual overview of the results, with details in Table 2 and Table 3. Figure 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 show forest plots for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies with pooled effects, mortality results, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, progression, recovery, viral clearance, and peer reviewed studies.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION PROGRESSION RECOVERY VIRAL CLEARANCE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS RCT MORTALITY PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES All Prophylaxis Early Late Curcumin for COVID-19 C19CURCUMIN.COM AUG 2022
Figure 3. Overview of results.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive effects Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive effects Random effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 7 8 87.5% 46% improvement
RR 0.54 [0.34‑0.86]
p = 0.0092
Late treatment 8 9 88.9% 49% improvement
RR 0.51 [0.40‑0.64]
p < 0.0001
Prophylaxis 2 2 100% 32% improvement
RR 0.68 [0.48‑0.98]
p = 0.039
All studies 17 19 89.5% 40% improvement
RR 0.60 [0.52‑0.69]
p < 0.0001
Table 2. Results by treatment stage.
Studies Early treatment Late treatment Prophylaxis PatientsAuthors
All studies 1946% [14‑66%]49% [36‑60%]32% [2‑52%] 4,006 161
With exclusions 1662% [12‑84%]47% [28‑61%]31% [-4‑55%] 3,493 136
Peer-reviewed 1846% [14‑66%]51% [37‑63%]32% [2‑52%] 3,760 155
Randomized Controlled TrialsRCTs 1539% [14‑57%]51% [37‑63%] 1,318 135
Table 3. Results by treatment stage for all studies and with different exclusions.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Dound (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.54-0.82] 6 pt. scale 100 (n) 100 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Saber-Moghaddam 94% 0.06 [0.00-0.93] progression 0/21 8/20 Pawar (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.79] death 2/70 11/70 Ahmadi (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.65] hosp. 0/30 3/30 Sankhe (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.03] death 0/87 4/87 CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.09] ventilation 0/45 1/47 CT​1 Khan (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.37-1.19] no recov. 10/25 15/25 CT​1 Askari (DB RCT) -125% 2.25 [0.30-16.6] no recov. 3/8 1/6 Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 29.6%, p = 0.0092 Early treatment 46% 0.54 [0.34-0.86] 15/386 43/385 46% improvement Valizadeh (DB RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.18-1.40] death 4/20 8/20 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tahmasebi (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.02-1.32] death 1/40 6/40 Hassania.. (DB RCT) -46% 1.46 [0.01-329] SpO2 imp. 20 (n) 20 (n) Asadirad (RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.26-2.12] death 5/27 6/24 Kartika 41% 0.59 [0.35-1.00] hosp. time 139 (n) 107 (n) Hartono (RCT) 53% 0.47 [0.32-0.68] viral+ 14/30 30/30 CT​1 Thomas (DB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.34-0.91] improv. 74 (n) 73 (n) LONG COVID CT​1 Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.71] death 0/60 3/60 CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.95] NEWS2 33 (n) 17 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 49% 0.51 [0.40-0.64] 24/443 53/391 49% improvement Shehab 42% 0.58 [0.14-2.32] severe case 2/32 24/221 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Nimer 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.04] hosp. 29/329 179/1,819 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.039 Prophylaxis 32% 0.68 [0.48-0.98] 31/361 203/2,040 32% improvement All studies 40% 0.60 [0.52-0.69] 70/1,190 299/2,816 40% improvement 19 curcumin COVID-19 studies c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome, see appendix) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Dound (RCT) 33% 6 pt. scale CT​1 Improvement Relative Risk [CI] Saber-Moghaddam 94% progression Pawar (DB RCT) 82% death Ahmadi (DB RCT) 86% hospitalization Sankhe (RCT) 89% death CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 66% ventilation CT​1 Khan (RCT) 33% recovery CT​1 Askari (DB RCT) -125% recovery Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 29.6%, p = 0.0092 Early treatment 46% 46% improvement Valizadeh (DB RCT) 50% death Tahmasebi (DB RCT) 83% death Hassania.. (DB RCT) -46% SpO2 imp. Asadirad (RCT) 26% death Kartika 41% hospitalization Hartono (RCT) 53% viral- CT​1 Thomas (DB RCT) 44% improv. LONG COVID CT​1 Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% death CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 77% NEWS2 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 49% 49% improvement Shehab 42% severe case Nimer 31% hospitalization Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.039 Prophylaxis 32% 32% improvement All studies 40% 40% improvement 19 curcumin COVID-19 studies c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Protocol pre-specified/rotate for details1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 4. Random effects meta-analysis for all studies with pooled effects. This plot shows pooled effects, discussion can be found in the heterogeneity section, and results for specific outcomes can be found in the individual outcome analyses. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. For details of effect extraction see the appendix.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Pawar (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.79] 2/70 11/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Sankhe (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.03] 0/87 4/87 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.007 Early treatment 84% 0.16 [0.04-0.61] 2/157 15/157 84% improvement Valizadeh (DB RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.18-1.40] 4/20 8/20 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tahmasebi (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.02-1.32] 1/40 6/40 Asadirad (RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.26-2.12] 5/27 6/24 Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.71] 0/60 3/60 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.038 Late treatment 51% 0.49 [0.25-0.96] 10/147 23/144 51% improvement All studies 61% 0.39 [0.21-0.71] 12/304 38/301 61% improvement 6 curcumin COVID-19 mortality results c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0021 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 5. Random effects meta-analysis for mortality results.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Sankhe (RCT) 75% 0.25 [0.03-2.19] 1/87 4/87 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Majeed (DB RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.09] 0/45 1/47 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.16 Early treatment 72% 0.28 [0.05-1.65] 1/132 5/134 72% improvement Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.71] 0/60 3/60 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 Late treatment 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.71] 0/60 3/60 86% improvement All studies 77% 0.23 [0.05-1.06] 1/192 8/194 77% improvement 3 curcumin COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.06 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 6. Random effects meta-analysis for ventilation.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Sankhe (SB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.04-3.11] 1/60 3/60 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.34 Late treatment 67% 0.33 [0.04-3.11] 1/60 3/60 67% improvement All studies 67% 0.33 [0.04-3.11] 1/60 3/60 67% improvement 1 curcumin COVID-19 ICU result c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.34 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 7. Random effects meta-analysis for ICU admission.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Saber-Moghaddam 45% 0.55 [0.39-0.79] hosp. time 21 (n) 20 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ahmadi (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.65] hosp. 0/30 3/30 Sankhe (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.71-1.15] hosp. time 87 (n) 87 (n) CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.13] hosp. 0/45 2/47 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.09, I​2 = 57.4%, p = 0.09 Early treatment 33% 0.67 [0.42-1.06] 0/183 5/184 33% improvement Kartika 41% 0.59 [0.35-1.00] hosp. time 139 (n) 107 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Sankhe (SB RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.71-1.15] hosp. time 45 (n) 45 (n) CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 13% 0.87 [0.07-10.6] hosp. time 33 (n) 17 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 2.8%, p = 0.12 Late treatment 17% 0.83 [0.66-1.05] 0/217 0/169 17% improvement Nimer 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.04] hosp. 29/329 179/1,819 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.054 Prophylaxis 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.04] 29/329 179/1,819 31% improvement All studies 25% 0.75 [0.62-0.90] 29/729 184/2,172 25% improvement 8 curcumin COVID-19 hospitalization results c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 29.6%, p = 0.0023 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 8. Random effects meta-analysis for hospitalization.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Saber-Moghaddam 94% 0.06 [0.00-0.93] 0/21 8/20 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.044 Early treatment 94% 0.06 [0.00-0.93] 0/21 8/20 94% improvement Asadirad (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.14-1.82] 3/30 6/30 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.3 Late treatment 50% 0.50 [0.14-1.82] 3/30 6/30 50% improvement All studies 76% 0.24 [0.03-1.80] 3/51 14/50 76% improvement 2 curcumin COVID-19 progression results c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 1.11, I​2 = 47.5%, p = 0.17 Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 9. Random effects meta-analysis for progression.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Saber-Moghaddam 38% 0.62 [0.39-0.96] no recov. 11/21 17/20 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ahmadi (DB RCT) 21% 0.79 [0.48-1.31] recov. time 30 (n) 30 (n) Sankhe (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.35-0.76] no recov. 29/87 60/87 CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 43% 0.57 [0.39-0.84] no recov. 45 (n) 47 (n) CT​1 Khan (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.37-1.19] no recov. 10/25 15/25 CT​1 Askari (DB RCT) -125% 2.25 [0.30-16.6] no recov. 3/8 1/6 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 39% 0.61 [0.51-0.74] 53/216 93/215 39% improvement Hassania.. (DB RCT) -46% 1.46 [0.01-329] SpO2 imp. 20 (n) 20 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Asadirad (RCT) 45% 0.55 [0.27-1.09] no recov. 8/27 13/24 Sankhe (SB RCT) 32% 0.68 [0.54-0.86] recov. time 45 (n) 45 (n) CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.95] NEWS2 33 (n) 17 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 35% 0.65 [0.53-0.81] 8/125 13/106 35% improvement All studies 37% 0.63 [0.55-0.72] 61/341 106/321 37% improvement 10 curcumin COVID-19 recovery results c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 10. Random effects meta-analysis for recovery.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Majeed (DB RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.80-1.10] viral time 45 (n) 47 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Khan (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.30-0.84] viral+ 10/25 20/25 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 80.9%, p = 0.3 Early treatment 28% 0.72 [0.39-1.33] 10/70 20/72 28% improvement Hartono (RCT) 53% 0.47 [0.32-0.68] viral+ 14/30 30/30 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Sankhe (SB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.38-0.81] viral load 44 (n) 43 (n) CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.47-1.71] viral+ 14/33 8/17 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 33.3%, p = 0.00045 Late treatment 43% 0.57 [0.42-0.78] 28/107 38/90 43% improvement All studies 35% 0.65 [0.45-0.93] 38/177 58/162 35% improvement 5 curcumin COVID-19 viral clearance results c19curcumin.com Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 78.4%, p = 0.017 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors curcumin Favors control
Figure 11. Random effects meta-analysis for viral clearance.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Dound (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.54-0.82] 6 pt. scale 100 (n) 100 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Saber-Moghaddam 94% 0.06 [0.00-0.93] progression 0/21 8/20 Pawar (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.79] death 2/70 11/70 Ahmadi (DB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.65] hosp. 0/30 3/30 Sankhe (RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.03] death 0/87 4/87 CT​1 Majeed (DB RCT) 66% 0.34 [0.01-8.09] ventilation 0/45 1/47 CT​1 Khan (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.37-1.19] no recov. 10/25 15/25 CT​1 Askari (DB RCT) -125% 2.25 [0.30-16.6] no recov. 3/8 1/6 Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 29.6%, p = 0.0092 Early treatment 46% 0.54 [0.34-0.86] 15/386 43/385 46% improvement Valizadeh (DB RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.18-1.40] death 4/20 8/20 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tahmasebi (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.02-1.32] death 1/40 6/40 Hassania.. (DB RCT) -46% 1.46 [0.01-329] SpO2 imp. 20 (n) 20 (n) Asadirad (RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.26-2.12] death 5/27 6/24 Hartono (RCT) 53% 0.47 [0.32-0.68] viral+ 14/30 30/30 CT​1 Thomas (DB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.34-0.91] improv. 74 (n) 73 (n) LONG COVID CT​1 Sankhe (SB RCT) 86% 0.14 [0.01-2.71] death 0/60 3/60 CT​1 Hellou (DB RCT) 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.95] NEWS2 33 (n) 17 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 51% 0.49 [0.37-0.63] 24/304 53/284 51% improvement Shehab 42% 0.58 [0.14-2.32] severe case 2/32 24/221 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Nimer 31% 0.69 [0.45-1.04] hosp. 29/329 179/1,819 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.039 Prophylaxis 32% 0.68 [0.48-0.98] 31/361 203/2,040 32% improvement All studies